IOT Networks

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What is IoT

The Internet of things (IoT) describes the network of physical objects—“things”—that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over the Internet.
Things have evolved due to the convergence of multiple technologies, real-time analytics, machine learning, commodity sensors, and embedded systems.Traditional fields of embedded systems, wireless sensor networks, control systems, automation (including home and building automation), and others all contribute to enabling the Internet of things. In the consumer market, IoT technology is most synonymous with products pertaining to the concept of the “”smart home””, including devices and appliances (such as lighting fixtures, thermostats, home security systems and cameras, and other home appliances) that support one or more common ecosystems, and can be controlled via devices associated with that ecosystem, such as smartphones and smart speakers. IoT can also be used in healthcare systems.

There are a number of serious concerns about dangers in the growth of IoT, especially in the areas of privacy and security, and consequently industry and governmental moves to address these concerns have begun including the development of international standards.

IoT Architecture

IoT system architecture, in its simplistic view, consists of three tiers: Tier 1: Devices, Tier 2: the Edge Gateway, and Tier 3: the Cloud. Devices include networked things, such as the sensors and actuators found in IIoT equipment, particularly those that use protocols such as Modbus, Bluetooth, Zigbee, or proprietary protocols, to connect to an Edge Gateway. The Edge Gateway layer consists of sensor data aggregation systems called Edge Gateways that provide functionality, such as pre-processing of the data, securing connectivity to cloud, using systems such as WebSockets, the event hub, and, even in some cases, edge analytics or fog computing.Edge Gateway layer is also required to give a common view of the devices to the upper layers to facilitate in easier management. The final tier includes the cloud application built for IIoT using the microservices architecture, which are usually polyglot and inherently secure in nature using HTTPS/OAuth. It includes various database systems that store sensor data, such as time series databases or asset stores using backend data storage systems (e.g. Cassandra, PostgreSQL). The cloud tier in most cloud-based IoT system features event queuing and messaging system that handles communication that transpires in all tiers. Some experts classified the three-tiers in the IIoT system as edge, platform, and enterprise and these are connected by proximity network, access network, and service network, respectively.

Organizational And Sectoral Applications

Medical and healthcare
Digital variable speed-limit sign
V2X communications
Building and home automation
Infrastructure applications
Energy management
Environmental monitoring
Living Lab
Military applications
Internet of Battlefield Things
Ocean of Things

Enabling Technologies For IoT


Application Layer
ADRC defines an application layer protocol and supporting framework for implementing IoT applications.

Short-range wireless
Bluetooth mesh networking – Specification providing a mesh networking variant to Bluetooth low energy (BLE) with increased number of nodes and standardized application layer (Models).
Light-Fidelity (Li-Fi) – Wireless communication technology similar to the Wi-Fi standard, but using visible light communication for increased bandwidth.
Near-field communication (NFC) – Communication protocols enabling two electronic devices to communicate within a 4 cm range.
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) – Technology using electromagnetic fields to read data stored in tags embedded in other items.
Wi-Fi – Technology for local area networking based on the IEEE 802.11 standard, where devices may communicate through a shared access point or directly between individual devices.
ZigBee – Communication protocols for personal area networking based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, providing low power consumption, low data rate, low cost, and high throughput.
Z-Wave – Wireless communications protocol used primarily for home automation and security applications

Medium-range wireless
LTE-Advanced – High-speed communication specification for mobile networks. Provides enhancements to the LTE standard with extended coverage, higher throughput, and lower latency.
5G – 5G wireless networks can be used to achieve the high communication requirements of the IoT and connect a large number of IoT devices, even when they are on the move.

Long-range wireless
Low-power wide-area networking (LPWAN) – Wireless networks designed to allow long-range communication at a low data rate, reducing power and cost for transmission. Available LPWAN technologies and protocols: LoRaWan, Sigfox, NB-IoT, Weightless, RPMA.
Very small aperture terminal (VSAT) – Satellite communication technology using small dish antennas for narrowband and broadband data.

Ethernet – General purpose networking standard using twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with hubs or switches.
Power-line communication (PLC) – Communication technology using electrical wiring to carry power and data. Specifications such as HomePlug or utilize PLC for networking IoT devices.

Criticism, Problems And Controversies

Platform fragmentation
Privacy, autonomy, and control
Data storage
Environmental sustainability impact
Intentional obsolescence of devices
Confusing terminology

IoT Adoption Barriers

– Lack of interoperability and unclear value propositions
Despite a shared belief in the potential of the IoT, industry leaders and consumers are facing barriers to adopt IoT technology more widely. Mike Farley argued in Forbes that while IoT solutions appeal to early adopters, they either lack interoperability or a clear use case for end-users.A study by Ericsson regarding the adoption of IoT among Danish companies suggests that many struggle “”to pinpoint exactly where the value of IoT lies for them””.

– Privacy and security concerns
As for IoT, information about a user’s daily routine is collected so that the “things” around the user can cooperate to provide better services that fulfill personal preference. When the collected information which describes a user in detail travels through multiple hops in a network, due to a diverse integration of services, devices and network, the information stored on a device is vulnerable to privacy violation by compromising nodes existing in an IoT network.

– Traditional governance structure

– Business planning and project management
According to 2018 study, 70–75% of IoT deployments were stuck in the pilot or prototype stage, unable to reach scale due in part to a lack of business planning.

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